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Charles William Morris, 1901-1979

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Charles W. Morris was born on 23 May 1901 in Denver, Colorado. After studying engineering and psychology, he earned a bachelor of science degree at Northwestern University in 1922. Deciding that his primary interests were philosophical, Morris became a student of pragmatist George Herbert Mead at the University of Chicago. In his dissertation titled 'Symbolism and Reality: A Study in the Nature of Mind' (Morris 1925) and articles published during the 1930s, Morris assembled a synthesis of the semiotics of Charles Peirce, the social behaviourism of Dewey and Mead, and the logical positivism of Rudolf Carnap and Otto Neurath. Morris quickly rose to a prominent position in American philosophy. Morris organized the Fifth and Sixth International Congresses for the Unity of Science (1939 and 1941). His relationships with German philosophers were essential to bringing many of them to America during World War II. Morris held academic appointments as an instructor in philosophy at the Rice Institute in Texas (1925-31), an associate professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago (1931-47), a lecturer at the University of Chicago (1948-58) and a research professor at the University of Florida (1958-71). Morris was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and served as President of the Western Division of the American Philosophical Association in 1936-37. Morris died on 15 January 1979 in Gainesville, Florida.

         The non-reductive and pluralistic naturalism of pragmatism is evident in Morris's efforts to construct a theory of language and signs. The scientific method, applied to all areas of inquiry, produces knowledge about humans and their environment which aids with philosophical questions. Neither philosophy alone, nor any single science's knowledge, can determine the reality of anything, including the nature of meaning, signs, and language. Morris inherited this perspective towards philosophical problems from earlier pragmatists. The psychological functionalism developed by Dewey, Mead, and James Angell at Chicago during the late 1890s synthesized the latest scientific knowledge into a theory of mind inspired by evolution: all aspects of mind are functions of purposive organic activity, explained by their survival value. Morris defended functionalism against its rivals in Six Theories of Mind (Morris 1932), and during the 1930s he labeled his own version as the "neo-pragmatism" advancing the movement.

          Also committed to the pragmatist view, emphasized particularly by Peirce, that intelligence essentially involves the creation and proper functioning of signs, Morris focused on their nature. Biology, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics together contribute to semiotics: the study of semiosis or the use of signs. To be a legitimate scientific field in its own right, semiotics must define its subject matter, the nature of signs, and delimit its methodological orientation to the objectively available evidence. Morris, following Mead, accordingly adopted the standpoint of pragmatic social behaviourism towards signs. The meaning of signs consists in their practical use; the practical use of signs is embedded in the behavioural habits of organisms; and complex signs and language arise in the social conduct of humans. Mead's large debt to Mead, as well as his selective appropriation of Mead's theories of mind and communication, is especially evident in his editorial work on Mead's lectures, brought together in Mind, Self, and Society: From the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist (Morris 1934).

           Morris's behaviourism offers an elimination of any subjectivity to signs. Signs exist in the natural world and do not essentially involve internal mental representations, but only the behavioural habits of response to stimuli. This behaviourism departs from Peirce's semiotic theory of signs as thought processes, and rejects Peirce's view of persons as signs themselves. Psychology may additionally formulate relationships between signs and mental experiences or conceptual processes, but such theorizing is not part of semiotics. Peirce's discrimination of sign, object, and interpretant within the semiotic process is transformed by Morris in Foundations of the Theory of Signs (Morris 1938) into the tripartite division of sign, object, and person within the natural world. Morris then divides the field of semiotics into syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This tripartite division of semiotics conveniently embraces logical positivism's treatment of analytic a priori propositions as merely syntactical truths, having no mental or metaphysical significance (following Carnap 1937). Morris's division of semiotics also found a fitting place for semantical propositions whose truths depend on nothing more than the correspondence between the meaning of the sign and the existence of the entity so designated. By adding pragmatics, Morris hoped to enfold the unity of science movement within the pragmatist camp, as Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism (Morris 1937) suggests. Carnap (1942) quickly adopted Morris's general approach to semiotics. However, advocates of logical positivism and scientism tended to isolate pragmatics as dealing only with features of communication largely irrelevant to knowledge, truth, and science.

            Morris's Signs, Language, and Behavior (Morris 1946) more carefully defines syntax, semantics, and pragmatics as follows. Pragmatics 'deals with the origins, uses, and effects of signs within the total behavior of the interpreters of signs' (219), and thus has the widest scope of any semiotic study. Semantics concerns just the relations between signs and the objects they signify, narrowing semiotic study to the strict literal meaning of signs and propositions. Syntactics concerns the formal relations between signs themselves, further narrowing semiotic study to the logical and grammatical rules that govern sign use. Morris's wide definition of pragmatics, by covering all linguistic behaviours, does not limit that field's study to meanings conveyed by speakers beyond what is explicitly or literally communicated. Morris resisted the notion that any firm dichotomy could be found between explicit and implicit meaning, or that any simplistic division could be made between syntactical signs, semantical signs, and pragmatical signs. Furthermore, the three factors of sign-behaviour, the designative, appraisive, and prescriptive factors, are found to varying degrees in all communication. Only the most refined and sophisticated languages facilitate sign-usage for just one or another factor, and such usage heavily depends on social context in any case.

            Morris's impact on philosophy and linguistics faded during the 1940s and 1950s, as pragmatism was displaced by analytic and scientistic approaches more concerned with formal and factual truth. Hostility towards pragmatism from University of Chicago philosopher Mortimer Adler and President Robert Hutchins further ensured the marginalization of Morris and semiotics. Undeterred, Morris applied his semiotics to a variety of fields in Paths of Life: Preface to a World Religion (Morris 1942), The Open Self (Morris 1948), Varieties of Human Value (Morris 1956), and Signification and Significance (Morris 1964), pursuing his dream that scientific knowledge of humanity will inspire the wisdom necessary to keep pace with technological and cultural change. The Pragmatic Movement in American Philosophy (Morris 1970) is an outstanding insider's account of pragmatism's figures and phases. However, Morris himself had almost no influence on the next generation of pragmatists in philosophy, who were more interested in insights from Ludwig Wittgenstein, Thomas Kuhn, or W.V. Quine. Morris's greatest student, the semiotician Thomas Sebeok, pursued and improved upon several of Morris's ideas, including those collected in Writings on the General Theory of Signs (Morris 1971).

[This article on Morris was published in Routledge's forthcoming Pragmatics Encyclopedia.]


The following bibliography by John Shook is largely based on one appended to Charles W. Morris, Symbolism and Reality (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1993), pp. 107-122. Several corrections, eliminated duplications, and additional publication information is provided here. See the bibliography in Symbolism and Reality for a more complete list of works about Charles Morris.


Writings of Charles W. Morris

Symbolism and Reality: A Study in the Nature of Mind. Dissertation, University of Chicago, 1925. Reprinted, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1993. Translated into German, Symbolik und Realitat, with an introduction by A. Eschbach. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1981.

"The Total-Situation Theory of Ethics." International Journal of Ethics 37 (1927): 258-268.

"The Concept of the Symbol I." Journal of Philosophy 24 (1927): 253-262.

"The Concept of the Symbol II." Journal of Philosophy 24 (1927): 281-291.

"Review of G. Lanoe-Villene, Le Livre des Symboles: Dictionnaire de Symbolique et de Mythologie." Journal of Philosophy 24 (1927): 581-583.

"The Prediction Theory of Truth." Monist 38 (1928): 387-401.

"Neo-Pragmatism and the Ways of Knowing." Monist 38 (1928): 494-501.

"Has Russell Passed the Tortoise?" Journal of Philosophy 26 (1929): 449-459.

"The Relation of Formal to Instrumental Logic." In T. V. Smith and W. K. Wright, eds, Essays in Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1929), pp. 253-268.

"The Nature of Mind." Three lectures delivered at the Rice Institute on January 6, 13, and 20, 1929. Rice Institute Pamphlet, vol. 16, no. 44 (Houston, 1929), pp. 153-244.

"Review of A. Spaier, La Penseé Concrète: Essai sur le symbolisme intellectual." Philosophical Review 38 (1929) 407-410.

"Review of G. A. De Laguna, Speech, Its Function and Development."

"Review of J. F. Markey, The Symbolic Process and Its Integration in Children." Philosophical Review 38 (1929): 612-615.

"Review of The Problem of Truth: University of California Lectures Delivered before the Philosophical Union, 1927-28." Journal of Philosophy 26 (1929): 356-360.

"A Reply to Prof. Schilpp." Monist 40 (1930): 321-323.

"Review of H. Dingier, Metaphysik der Wissenschaft vom Letzten." Philosophical Review 39 (1930): 508-513.

"Review of University of California Publications in Philosophy, vol. 2: Studies in the Nature of Truth." Journal of Philosophy 27 (1930): 210-215.

"Mind in Process and Reality." Journal of Philosophy 28 (1931): 113-127.

"Review of C. A. Strong, Essays on the Natural Origin of the Mind." Philosophical Review 40 (1931): 590-592.

Six Theories of Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1932. Reprinted, 1966.

"Truth, Action, and Verification." Monist 42 (1932): 321-329.

"Review of L. A. Dewe, Les deux ordres, psychique et matériel." Philosophical Review 41 (1932): 87-88.

"Review of G. F. Stout, Mind and Matter." Philosophical Review 41 (1932): 410-413.

"Review of T. Whittaker, Prolegomena to a New Metaphysics." Ethics 42 (1932): 470-471.

"Review of D. S. Robinson, An Introduction to Living Philosophy." Ethics 42 (1932): 469-470.

"Review of J. Wahl, Vers le Concret: Etudes d'Histoire de la Philosophie Contemporaine." Journal of Philosophy 30 (1933): 714-716.

Pragmatism and the Crisis of Democracy. Public Policy Pamphlet No. 12. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1934.

"Introduction." To George H. Mead, Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1934.

"Pragmatism and Metaphysics." Philosophical Review 43 (1934): 549-564. Reprinted in Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism (Paris: Hermann et Cie., 1937), pp. 31-45.

"Review of R. W. Sellars, The Philosophy of Physical Realism." Philosophical Review 43 (1934): 205-208.

"Brief Bibliography of Contemporary Scientific Philosophy in the United States." Erkenntnis 5 (1935) 195-199.

"Philosophy of Science and Science of Philosophy." Philosophy of Science 2 (1935): 271-286. Reprinted in Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism (Paris: Hermann et Cie., 1937), pp. 7-21. An abstract is in Journal of Philosophy 32 (1935): 292.

"The Relation of the Formal and Empirical Science within Scientific Empiricism." Erkenntnis 5 (1935) 6-14. Reprinted in Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism (Paris: Hermann et Cie., 1937), pp. 46-55.

"Some Aspects of Recent American Scientific Philosophy." Erkenntnis 5 (1935-36) 142-151.

"Review of F. C. S. Schiller, Must Philosophers Disagree?" Personalist 16 (1935): 388-390.

"Professor Schiller and Pragmatism." Personalist 17 (1936): 294-300.

"Semiotic and Scientific Empiricism." In Actes du Congrès International de Philosophie Scientifique 1935, vol. 1 (Paris: 1936), pp. 2-16. Reprinted in Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism (Paris: Hermann et Cie., 1937), pp. 56-71.

"Remarks on the Proposed Encyclopaedia." Actes du Congrès International de Philosophie Scientique. vol. 2: Unité de la Science (Paris: 1936), pp. 71-74.

"The Concept of Meaning in Pragmatism and Logical Positivism." In Actes du Huitième Congrès International de Philosophie, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 2-7 September 1936 (Prague: 1936. Rpt., Nendeln und Leichtenstein: Kraus Reprint, 1968), pp. 130-138. Reprinted in Logical Positivism, Pragmatism, and Scientific Empiricism (Paris: Hermann et Cie., 1937), pp. 22-30.

"Review of Einheit der Wissenschaften: Prager Vorkonferenz der Internationalen Kongresse für Einheit der Wissenschaft." Philosophy of Science 3 (1936): 542-543.

"Review of O. Neurath, Le dévéloppement du Cercle de Vienne et l'avenir de 1'empirisme logique." Philosophy of Science 3 (1936): 542-543.

"Symposium of Unified Science." Philosophy of Science 4 (1937): 496-498.

Logical Positivism, Pragmatism and Scientific Empiricism. Paris: Hermann et Cie., 1937. Reprinted, New York: AMS Press, 1979.

"The Unity of Science Movement and the United States." Synthese 3 (1938): 25-29.

"Introduction." To George H. Mead, The Philosophy of the Act, ed. Charles W. Morris, in collaboration with J. M. Brewster, A. M. Dunham and D.L. Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago 1938), pp. vii-lxxiii.

"Scientific Empiricism." International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, ed. Otto Neurath, vol. 1, no. 1 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938), pp 63-75.

"Foundations of the Theory of Signs." International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, ed. Otto Neurath, vol. 1 no. 2. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938. Rpt, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970-71). Reprinted in Charles Morris, Writings on the General Theory of Signs (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 13-71. Translated into Italian, Lineamenti di una teoria dei segni, by F. Rossi-Landi, with his introduction and commentary. Turin, Milano, Padua: 1963. Translated into German, Grundlagen der Zeichentheorie: Aesthetik und Zeichentheorie, by R. Posner and J. Rehbein. Munchen: Hanser, 1972.

"Peirce, Mead and Pragmatism." Philosophical Review 47 (1938): 109-127.

"General Education and the Unity of Science Movement." In John Dewey and the Promise of America, Progressive Education Booklet No. 14 (Columbus, Ohio: Progressive Education Association 1939), pp. 26-40.

"Science, Art and Technology." Kenyon Review 1 (1939): 419-423.

"Esthetics and the Theory of Signs." Erkenntnis 8 (1939): 131-150. Reprinted in Charles Morris, Writings on the General Theory of Signs (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 415-433.

"Review of P. W. Bridgman, The Intelligent Individual and Society." Review of Scientific Instruments 10 (1939): 122.

"Semiotic, the Socio-Humanistic Sciences, and the Unity of Science." Erkenntnis 9 (1940).

"Knowledge and Social Practice." Frontiers of Democracy 6 (1940): 150-152.

"The Mechanism of Freedom." In Freedom, Its Meaning, ed. R.N. Anshen (New York: 1940), pp. 579-589.

"The Search for a Life of Significance. The Work of Raymond Jonson, American Painter." Tomorrow 1 (1941): 16-21.

"Review of P. Frank, Between Physics and Philosophy." Astrophysical Journal 94 (1941): 555.

"Empiricism, Religion, and Democracy." In Science, Philosophy, and Religion: Second Symposium, ed. L. Bryson, ed. (New York: 1942), pp. 213-242.

"William James Today." In Commemoration to William James, ed. Horace M. Kallen, ed. (New York: 1942). pp. 178-187.

Paths of Life: Preface to a World Religion. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1942.

"Freedom or Frustration." Fortune 28 (1943): 148-152 and 162-174.

"Commentary on A. Kaplan, 'Content Analysis and the Theory of Signs'." Philosophy of Science 10 (1943): 230-247 and 247-249.

"The Social Assimilation of Cultural Relativity." In Approaches to World Peace, ed. L. Bryson et al. (New York: 1944), pp. 619-626.

"Liberation from the Machine Mind." Biosophical Review 7 (1944): 9-10.

"Review of A. S. Clayton, Emergent Mind and Education: A Study of George H. Mead's Bio-Social Behaviorism from an Educational Point of View." Journal of Philosophy 41 (1944): 108-109.

"Review of National Society of College Teachers of Education, Yearbook no. 28: The Discipline of Practical Judgment in a Democratic Society." Journal of Philosophy 41 (1944): 302-304.

"Communication: Its Forms and Problems." In Approaches to National Unity, ed. L. Bryson (New York: 1945), pp. 635-643.

"Nietzsche, An Evaluation." Journal of the History of Ideas 6 (1945): 285-293.

"The Significance of the Unity of Science Movement." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 6 (1946): 508-515.

Signs, Language and Behavior. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1946. Reprinted, New York: George Braziller, 1955. Reprinted in Charles Morris, Writings on the General Theory of Signs (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 73-397. Translated into Italian, Segni, linguaggio e comportamento, by S. Ceccato. Milan: 1949. Translated into German, Zeichen, Sprache und Verhalten, by A. Eschbach and G. Kopsch. Dusseldorf: Schwann, 1973.

"Science and Discourse." Synthese 5 (1946): 296-308.

"To the Editors of the Journal of Philosophy." Journal of Philosophy 43 (1946): 196.

"To the Editors of the Journal of Philosophy." Journal of Philosophy 43 (1946): 363-364.

"Linguistics and the Theory of Signs." Word 2 (1946): 85.

"Philosophy as Symbolic Synthesis of Belief." Sixth Conference on Science, Philosophy, and Religion (1945). In Approaches to Group Understanding, ed. L. Bryson et al. (New York: 1947), pp. 626-631.

"Testimony of American Youth." New York Herald Tribune, 26 October 1947.

"Multiple Self and Multiple Society." In Freedom and Experience: Essays presented to H. M. Kallen, ed. Sidney Hook and Milton R. Konvitz (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1947), pp. 70-78.

"Review of H. W. Schneider, A History of American Philosophy." Nation (1947): 225-226.

"Signs about Signs about Signs." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (1948): 115-133. Reprinted in Charles Morris, Writings on the General Theory of Signs (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 434-455.

"Comments on Mr. Storer's Paper." Philosophy of Science 15 (1948): 330-332.

"Recent Studies in Meaning and Communication." Sigma 2 (1948): 454-458.

The Open Self. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1948.

"The Three Primary Forms of Discourse." In The Language of Wisdom and Folly, ed. I.J. Lee (New York: 1949), pp. 31-39.

"Entrance to Asia." Chuo Koron (1949): 19-23.

Öppna Er Själv. Translated into Swedish by Ann Bouleau. Stockholm: 1949.

"Individual Differences and Cultural Patterns." In Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture, ed. C. Kluckhohn and H.A. Murray (New York: 1949), pp. 131-143.

"Comments on the Paper by Jean A. Phillips." Philosophy of Science 17 (1950): 354-355.

"Comparative Strength of Life-Ideals in Eastern and Western Cultures." In Essays in East-West Philosophy, ed. C.A. Moore (Honolulu: 1951), pp. 353-370.

"Biosophical Themes and Human Values?" Biosophical Review 11 (1951): 16-18.

"The Science of Man and Unified Science." Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 80 (1951): 37-44.

"Similarity of Constitutional Factors in Psychotic Behavior in India, China and the United States." American Journal of Psychiatry 108 (1951): 143-144.

"Axiology as the Science of Preferential Behavior." In Value: A Cooperative Inquiry, ed. R. Lepley (New York: 1951), pp. 211-222.

"Comments on Mysticism and its Language." ETC. A Review of General Semantics 9 (1951-52): 3-8.

"Review of K. Burke, A Rhetoric of Motives." Review of Metaphysics 4 (1951): 439-443.

"Review of A. W. Watts, The Supreme Identity." Philosophy East and West 1 (1951): 77-79.

"Significance, Signification, and Paintings." Methodos 5 (1953): 87-102. Reprinted in Symbols and Value, ed. L. Bryson (New York: 1954), pp. 563-575.

"Symbols, Values and Philosophy." Audio recorded in 1953, 20 minutes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. New York: Jeffrey Norton, 1981.

"Review of R. B. Perry, Realms of Value." Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 295 (1954): 179-180.

"Value Scales and Dimensions." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 51 (1955): 523-535.

Varieties of Human Value. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956. Reprinted, 1973.

"Toward a Unified Theory of Human Behavior." In Toward a Unified Theory of Human Behavior, ed. R.R. Grinker (New York: 1956), pp. 350-351.

"Varieties of Human Value." Humanist 16 (1956): 153-161.

"Return to Nature." Time (Atlantic edition) 67 (1956): 41.

"Relations of Temperament to the Choice of Values." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 53 (1956): 345-349.

"Paintings, Ways to Live, and Values." In Sign Image Symbol, ed. G. Kepes (New York: 1956), pp. 144-149.

"Man-Cosmos Symbols." In The New Landscape in Art and Science, ed. G. Kepes (Chicago: 1956), pp. 98-99. Reprinted in Charles Morris, Writings on the General Theory of Signs (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 464-466.

"Review of L. Bryson et al., Symbols and Society." Contemporary Psychology 1 (1956): 216-217.

"Review of P. Edwards, The Logic of Moral Discourse." Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 307 (1956): 181.

"Review of S. Uyade, Logical Positivism: Essays in Philosophical Analysis and Language, Meaning and Value." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 17 (1956-57): 265-266.

"Mysticism and Its Language." In Language: An Enquiry into Its Meaning and Function, ed. R. N. Anshen (New York: 1957), pp. 179-187. Reprinted in Charles Morris, Writings on the General Theory of Signs (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 456-463.

"A Comment on Dr. Paul Oppenheim's Dimension of Knowledge." Revue Internationale de Philosophie 40 (1957) Fasc. 2.

"Philosophy and the Behavioral Sciences in the United States." Chinese Journal of Contemporary Philosophy and Social Sciences (1957): 1-8.

"Review of K. R. Boulding, The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society." American Sociological Review 22 (1957): 112-113.

"Review of H. Welch, The Parting of the Way: Lao Tzu and the Taoist Movement." American Sociological Review 22 (1957): 494.

"Review of M. Natason, The Social Dynamics of George Herbert Mead." Ethics 67 (1957): 145-146.

"Prospects for a New Synthesis: Science and the Humanities as Complementary Activities." In Science and the Modern Mind, ed. G. Holton (Boston: 1958).

"Words without Meaning." Contemporary Psychology 3 (1958): 212-214.

"Edward Scribner Ames As Philosopher." The Scroll: The Journal of the Campbell Institute (Chicago) 44 (1958): 7-10.

"Philosophy, Psychiatry, Mental Illness and Health." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20 (1959-60): 47-55.

"Values of Psychiatric Patients." Behavioral Science 5 (1960): 297-312.

"On the History of the International Encyclopaedia of Unified Science." Synthese 12 (1960): 517-521.

"Analysis of the Connotative Meanings of a Variety of Human Values as Expressed by American College Students." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 62 (1961): 62-73.

"Values, Problematic and Unproblematic, and Science." Journal Of Communication 11 (1961): 205-210.

"On the History of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science." In Logic and Language: Festschrift R. Carnap (Dordrecht: 1962), pp. 242-246.

"Pragmatism and Logical Empiricism." In The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, ed. Paul A. Schilpp (New York: 1963), pp. 87-98.

Signification and Significance: A Study of the Relations of Signs and Values. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964. Chap. 1, "Signs and the Act," is reprinted in Charles Morris, Writings on the General Theory of Signs (The Hague: Mouton, 1971), pp. 401-414.

"Otto Neurath and the Unity of Science Movement." Jerusalem: 1964.

"George H. Mead: A Pragmatist's Philosophy of Science." In Scientific Psychology: Principles and Approaches, ed. Benjamin B. Wolman and Ernest Nagel (New York: Basic Books, 1965), pp. 402-408.

"Aesthetics, Signs and Icons." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 25 (1964-65): 356-364.

"On the Unity of the Pragmatic Movement." Rice University Studies vol. 51 no. 4 (1965): 109-119.

"Alfred Adler and George H. Mead." Journal of Individual Psychology 21 (1965): 199-200.

"Technique and Human Value." Symposium on the Technological Society, the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, Santa Barbara, California, 19-23 December 1965.

Festival. New York: George Braziller, 1966.

"Comment on 'Counseling without Assuming Free Will'." Personnel and Guidance Journal 45 (1966): 217-218.

"Foreword" to the Italian translation of "Esthetics and the Theory of Signs" and "Esthetics, Signs, and Icons." Nuova corrente 42-43 (1967): 113-119.

"A Tribute to Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki." The Eastern Buddhist, new series 2 (1967): 128-129.

"Religion and the Empirical Study of Human Values." Religious Humanism 1 (1967): 74-75.

"Thirteen Ways to Live - A Report on Reactions of Readers of Religious Humanism." Religious Humanism 2 (1968): 85-86.

"G. H. Mead als Sozialpsychologe und Sozialphilosoph." In George H. Mead, Geist, Identität und Gesellschaft (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp 1968), pp. 13-39.

"The Symbol Maitreya." Maitreya 1 (1970): 4-6.

The Pragmatic Movement in American Philosophy. New York: George Braziller, 1970.

Writings on the General Theory of Signs. Den Haag: Mouton,1971.

"Changes in Conceptions of the Good Life by American Students from 1950 to 1970." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 20 (1971): 254-260.

Cycles. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1973.

"Sprechen und menschliches Handeln." In Philosophische Anthropologie, vol. 7, no. 2., ed. Hans Georg Gadamer and P. Vogler (Stuttgart: 1975), pp. 235-251.

Zeichen Wert äesthetik. Mit einer Einleitung hg. u. übers. v. A. Eschbach. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1975.

Image. New York: Vantage Press, 1976.

Pragmatische Semiotik und Handlungstheorie. Mit einer Einleitung hg. und übers. v. A. Eschbach. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1977.


Writings About Charles Morris

Bentley, Arthur F. "Signs of Error." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 10 (1949): 99-106

Black, Max. "The Semiotic of Charles Morris." In Language and Philosophy, ed. M. Black (Ithica, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1949), pp. 168-185.

Black, Max. "The Limitations of a Behavioristic Semiotic." Philosophical Review 56 (1947): 258-272.

Carnap, Rudolf. The Logical Syntax of Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1937.

Carnap, Rudolf. Introduction to Semantics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1942.

Dewey, John and A. F. Bentley. Knowing and the Known. 1949. Later Works of John Dewey, vol. 16 (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1989).

Ducasse, C. J. "Symbols, Signs, and Signals." Journal of Symbolic Logic 4 (1939): 41-52.

Ducasse, C. J. "Some Comments on C. W. Morris's 'Foundations of the Theory of Signs'." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 3 (1942): 43-52.

Dutz, K. D. Glossar der semiotischen Terminologie Charles W. Morris. Munster: Munsteraner Arbeitskreis fur Semiotik, 1979.

Dutz, K. D. Die Terminologie von Charles W. Morris. Zur Terminologie der Semiotik II. 2. ed. Munster: Papmaks, 1985.

Eschbach, A., ed. Zeichen Uber Zeichen uber Zeichen. 15 Studien uber Charles W. Morris. Tubingen: Narr, 1981.

Fiordo, R. A. Charles Morris and the Criticism of Discourse. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976.

Gentry, G. V. "Signs, Interpretants, and Significata." Journal of Philosophy 44 (1947): 318-324.

Graham, E. "Logic and Semiotic." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (1948): 103-114.

Hartshorne, C. "Charles Morris." Obituary. Semiotica 28 no.1-2 (1979): 193-194.

Kaplan, A. "Content Analysis and the Theory of Signs." Philosophy of Science 10 (1943): 230-247.

Kattsoff, L. O. "What is behavior?" Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9 (1949): 98-102.

Klaus, G. Die Macht des Wortes. Ein erkenntnistheoretisch-pragmatisches Traktat. Berlin: 1969.

Klaus, G. Sprache der Politik. Berlin: 1971.

League, R. Psycholinguistic Matrices: Investigation into Osgood and Morris. Den Haag: Mouton, 1977.

Lebiedzinski, W. "Zeichen und Bedeutung bei Charles Morris." In Zeitschrift fur Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung 35 (1982): 643-651.

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